Day 2 :
Ruerson University | Canada
Keynote: Information & communication technology and the battle for environmental pollution: A global perspective
Time : 09:30-10:15
Farid Shirazi has been Graduated from University of Cape Town in Information Systems. He is a Senior Researcher at Institute for Innovation and Technology Management at Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada. He is currently an Associate Director and an Associate Professor of the Ted Rogers school of Information Technology Management. Dr. Shirazi's research focuses mainly on the impact of ICTs on the social and economic development. His main research interests are IT-enabled sustainability and development, Cloud Computing, Bigdata Analytics, E-government strategies, Green IS management as well as the ethical and security perspectives associated with the introduction and use of ICTs.
The positive and negative environmental impacts of information and communication technologies (ICTs) are widely debated. In theory, ICT is among the sources contributing to the increasing levels of CO2 emissions in terms of production of ICT machinery and devices, energy consumption, and recycling of electronic waste For example E-waste is one of the main sources of harmful toxic pollutants such as polyvinyl chlorides, polychlorinated biphenyls, lead, mercury and cadmium among others. E-waste also represents a potent source of valuable metals such as gold, silver, palladium, and copper. However, It is expected that ICT will help us to reduce CO2 emissions on a global scale by developing smarter cities, transportation systems, electrical grids, industrial processes, and energy saving gains. These two effects work in opposite direction, creating an inverted-U relationship between ICT and CO2 emissions.
Given that global warming is a global issue, it is necessary to look at this relationship in countries at all levels of development. To this end, we use a panel data set consisting of 147 economies, over the period 1996–2015. The results of our empirical study confirm that the relationship between ICT and CO2 emissions is an inverted U-shaped relationship. Moreover, while for the sample of developing countries, the ICT turning point is well above the mean value, the opposite is true for the sample of developed countries. This implies that many developed countries have already attained the level of ICT development, at which CO2 emissions decreases as the level of ICT development improves further.
School of Public Health | India
Keynote: Catastrophic expense among general ward indoor patients in tertiary care hospital of North India
Time : 10:15-11:00
Arun Kumar Aggarwal is MD in Community Medicine and postgraduate in Health & Hospital Administration. He is Professor in School of Public Health of premier tertiary care institute (PGIMER) at Chandigarh, North India. He has done WHO fellowship in Health Financing & Economics from Bangkok and World Bank online course on Basics of Health Economics.
Data of 190 patients was collected at discharge from ‘General Ward’ of a tertiary care hospital of north India regarding their expense on medicines, supplies, diagnostics and user fees. Information on their poor free status, total household monthly income and expenditure, and total family members and earning members was also captured from them. They were asked if they had to take some loan or dispose of the assets for taking treatment.
Catastrophic expenses by the standard methods (40% of ability to pay or 10% total expenditure) are of not much use for the hospitals and institutions to improve financial protection to improve Universal Health Coverage. In hospitals patients with Below Poverty Line ( BPL) cards are offered free treatment subject to restrictions. Patients generally bear the extra expense on medicines and supplies. Other schemes for poor patients follow stringent income certification process that poor find difficult to follow when in crisis.
This study on ‘General Ward ‘patients gives insight into the influence of various predictors like medical expense (including only direct medical costs) and financial protection mechanisms in terms of poor free status on evidence of catastrophe in form of availing loans and disposing assets.
We found that although poor free status confers some protection; as overall medical expenses were lower in this group, but still even poor free have to incur huge expense and have to borrow money or dispose off assets. Huge expense is on medicines and also supplies. Institute offers substantial protection on user fee and diagnostics. Top ten departments and disease conditions where substantial expense occurs are also listed. Study also highlights the need to offer financial protection to NOT poor free patients in departments with diseases likely to incur large expense.
- S Prinja, R Gupta, P Bahuguna, A Sharma, AK Aggarwal, A Phogat, (2016). A composite indicator to measure universal health care coverage in India: way forward for post-2015 health system performance monitoring framework. Health Policy and Planning, czw097, Publication date 2016/8/6
- D Balasubramanian, S Prinja, AK Aggarwal (2015). Effect of user charges on secondary level surgical care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures in Haryana State, India. PloS one 10 (5), e0125202, Date of Publication 2015/5/4
- S Prinja, P Bahuguna, PVM Lakshmi, T Mokashi, AK Aggarwal, M Kaur, .. (2014). Evaluation of publicly financed and privately delivered model of emergency referral services for maternal and child health care in India. PloS one 9 (10), e109911, Date of Publication 2014/10/31
- S Prinja, N Manchanda, AK Aggarwal, M Kaur, G Jeet, R Kumar (2013). Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 2013, 138 (6):1003
- AK Aggarwal, P Kumar, S Pandit, R Kumar (2013). Accuracy of WHO verbal autopsy tool in determining major causes of neonatal deaths in India. PLoS One 8 (1), e54865, Date of Publication 2013/1/25